Apostolic and Pre-Nicene Eras
AD 29-33: Jesus is crucified, rises again, and the church begins at Pentecost.
33-100: Apostlic era; independeent churches spread around the Roman empire and beyond.
100-303: Church expands beyond empire; suffering persecution fuels more growth. Church becomes more organized, and clergy becomes more important and powerful.
Great Persecution and Rise of Constantine to Power
AD 303-311: Galerius leads two Augusti and two Caesars in the Great Persecution of Christians.
311: Galerius signs the Edict of Toleration, ending persecution, and admits failure.
311: Galerius dies from a disease that Christians attribute to the judgment of God.
312: Constantine has a vision of Christian symbol similar to the cross, and inscribes the symbol on the shields of soldiers, and defeats Maxentius to unite the western empire.
Events Leading to Council of Nicaea
AD 268-312: Lucian, an elder in Antioch, heads a theological school that trained early leaders of Arianism. Lucian dies as a martyr in communion with church in 312.
318: Arius, an elder in Alexandria, tells Bishop Alexander the Son did not exist before God in the beginning.
321: Arius is excommunicated by council of bishops and moves to Nicomedia, where he is welcomed by Eusebius.
321-325: Arius and Eusebius teach their doctrine to sailors, merchants, and children, and write letters to other bishops trying to spread the Arian belief.
324: Constantine defeats and then executes Licinius, and unites the entire Roman empire under his rule.
325: Constantine offers transportation to all bishops to come to Nicaea for a council to resolve the Arian controversy.
Council of Nicaea and Afterward
AD 325: Council of Nicaea is held in the summer. Arius is banished along with Theonas and Secundus.
325-326: Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nicaea are banished (probably).
328: Eusebius and Theognis write a letter of recantation, stating Arius also has been received back from exile. Constantine restores them to their cleric positions.
328-335: Constantine orders the church in Alexandria to talk with Arius; Athanasius refuses.
335: Council of Tyre, led by Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nicaea, attempts to convict Athanasius of various crimes, but fails. Constantine calls major bishops to Constantinople, then expels Athanasius.
336: A council in Jerusalem restores Arius but he dies on the way to Constantinople for his first communion and his banishment. Supporters say he was poisoned; opponents say he was judged by God.
337: Constantine is baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia, dies several days later, and leaves the empire to his three sons: Constantine II, Constans, and Constantius. Constantine II sends Athanasius back to Alexandria.
337-361: Constantius, emperor in the east, embraces Arianism, installs Arian bishops in many cities of the east, resulting in general pandemonium.
339: Eusebius of Caesarea, known as the father of church history, dies.
341: Constantius brings Eusebius from Nicomedia to Constantinople. Eusebius calls a council in Antioch to affirm a new creed and expel Athanasius from Alexandria. Western bishops reject the creed.
343: A council is called in Sardica to reconcile east and west. A controversy over Paul and Athanasius, rejected from their sees, causes the eastern bishops to hold their own council in Philippopolis. Sardica confrims homoousios, but it is rejected in Philippopolis, and east and west are completely divided.
347-348: Constans threatens Constantius with civil war if he does not reinstall Paul and Athanasius as bishops. Constantius agrees and orders their cities to support them.
348: (Approximate date) Athanasius calls a council in Jerusalem, and two leading Arian bishops--Ursacius and Valens--temporarily embrace the Nicene Creed. Athanasius then alienates most eastern bishops and Constantius by appointing elders in other jurisdictions.
350-361: Constantius overthrows Magnentius, then tries to spread Arianism in the west. He removes bishops in the west and the east, replaceing them with bishops espousing Arian opinions.
356: Liberius, bishop of Rome, is banished, and Athanasius is forced to flee Alexandria for his life.
358: Liberius is restored to his position after signing a creed with Arian sentiments under duress.
359: Council of Ariminum is held in the west, and Council of Seleucia in the east. Both councils approve an Arian creed, but numerous bishops, especially in the west, object. Jerome later mourns that at this point, "The world groaned and was astonished to find itself Arian."
361: Constantius dies, and Julian the Apostate becomes emperor in the east. He embraces paganism and recalls all the
bishops Constantius banished, perhaps hoping the Christians will battle each other into extinction, He also introduces persecution against Christians.
363: Julian is killed in battle with the Persians, and Jovian becomes emperor. Jovian supports the Nicene Creed without violence, bringing growing peace to the east, but he dies of illness after seven months. The Acacian sect of Arians embraces the Nicene Creed.
364: Valens becomes emperor in the east, embraces Arianism, persecutes the Nicene churches, and attempts to install Arian bishops in all eastern churches. Valentinian I becomes emperor in the west, and holds to the Nicene Creed.
375: Barbarian Goths kill Valentinian, emperor in the west.
375: Gratian, nephew of Valens, becomes emperor in the west and supports the Nicene Creed.
375: Valens defeats the Goths, gives them mercy, and they embrace Christianity, becoming Arians. Barbarian tribes remain Arians for at least a century.
378: Valens is slain in another battle with the Goths.
378-381: Gratian recalls all banished Nicene bishops in the east, but allows various sects to worship unmolested in their own churches.
379: Gratian appoints Theodosius as emperor in the east to replace Valens.
381: Theodosius calls a council in Constantinople to affirm a modified Nicene Creed. 150 bishops arrive from the east, plus Macedonian bishops whom the emperor wished to convert--but they refuse and leave the meeting. This council becomes remembered as the "Second Ecumenical Council of the Church."
383: Theodosius requests a defense of the faith from all four major sects. After much prayer and consideration, he decides for the homoousian party. This event ended the Arian controversy and constituted the final victory for the Nicene Creed. Arianism does not disappear, but is considered unorthodox and outside the faith of the church.
(Source: Adapted from Decoding Nicea, a book by Paul F. Pavao, published by The Greatest Stories Ever Told, 2011)
New Testament Timeline
All dates are approximate
|6 BC||Birth of John the Baptist||Luke 1,
|6 BC||Augustus Taxes the Roman Empire||Luke 2|
|5 BC||Birth of Jesus||Matthew 1,
|5 BC||Visit of the Magi||Matthew 2|
|5 BC||Escape to Egypt||Matthew 2:13|
|4 BC||Slaughter of Infants||Matthew 2:16|
|4 BC||Return to Nazareth||Matthew 2:23|
|8 AD||The Boy Jesus at the Temple||Luke 2:41|
|26 AD||John the Baptist Prepares the Way||Matthew 3,
|26 AD||The Baptism of Jesus||Matthew 3:13,
|27 AD||Temptation of Jesus||Matthew 4,
|27 AD||Jesus Calls his First Disciples||Matthew 4:18,
|27 AD||Wedding at Cana||John 2|
|27 AD||Jesus Teaches Nicodemus||John 3|
|27 AD||Jesus Testifies to the Samaritan Woman||John 4|
|27 AD||Sermon on the Mount||Matthew 5 - 7|
|28 AD||Instructions on Prayer||Luke 11|
|28 AD||Jesus Ministers in Galilee||Matthew 8,
|28 AD||The Pool of Bethesda||John 5|
|28 AD||Jesus Lord of the Sabbath||Matthew 12,
|28 AD||Jesus Answers John's Disciples||Matthew 11,
|28 AD||Jesus Speaks Many Parables||Matthew 13,
|28 AD||Jesus Heals a Demoniac||Matthew 8:28,
|28 AD||Jesus Heals a Paralytic||Matthew 9|
|29 AD||Jesus Sends out His Twelve Apostles||Matthew 10,
|29 AD||John the Baptist Beheaded||Matthew 14,
|29 AD||Jesus Feeds the 5,000||Matthew 14:15,
|29 AD||Teachings on Clean and Unclean||Matthew 15,
|29 AD||Peter's Confession of Christ||Matthew 16,
|29 AD||The Transfiguration||Matthew 17,
|29 AD||Greatest and Least in the Kingdom||Matthew 18|
|29 AD||Jesus Sends out the Seventy-two||Luke 10|
|29 AD||Jesus Teaches at the Feast of Tabernacles||John 7|
|29 AD||The Woman Caught in Adultery||John 8|
|29 AD||Jesus Affirms He is the Son of God||John 9|
|29 AD||The Shepherd and His Flock||John 10|
|30 AD||Jesus Speaks More Parables||Luke 12 - 16|
|30 AD||Jesus Cleanses the Ten Lepers||Luke 17|
|30 AD||Jesus Raises Lazarus||John 11|
|30 AD||Final Journey to Jerusalem||Matthew 19, 20,
|30 AD||The Triumphal Entry||Matthew 21,
|30 AD||Closing Ministry in Jerusalem||Matthew 22 - 25,
Mark 12, 13,
Luke 20, 21
|30 AD||Thursday Before Passover||Matthew 26,
|30 AD||Jesus Comforts His Disciples||John 14|
|30 AD||Jesus the True Vine||John 15|
|30 AD||Jesus Promises the Holy Spirit||John 16|
|30 AD||Jesus' Intercessory prayers||John 17|
|30 AD||Jesus' Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion||Matthew 27,
John 18, 19
|30 AD||Jesus' Resurrection||Matthew 28,
John 20, 21
|30 AD||The Ascension||Acts 1|
|30 AD||Matthias Chosen by Lot||Acts 1:12|
|30 AD||The Holy Spirit Comes at Pentecost||Acts 2|
|30 AD||Peter Heals and Preaches||Acts 3|
|30 AD||Peter and John Arrested and Released;||Acts 4|
|30 AD||Believers Share All||Acts 4:32|
|30 AD||Deaths of Ananias and Sapphira||Acts 5|
|30 AD||Apostles Preach and Heal||Acts 5:11|
|31 AD||Stephen's Speech, Stoning and Death||Acts 6, 7|
|31 AD||Saul Persecutes the Church||Acts 8|
|31 AD||Philip in Samaria||Acts 8:3|
|31 AD||Simon the Sorcerer||Acts 8:9|
|31 AD||Philip and the Ethiopian||Acts 8:26|
|34 AD||Saul's Conversion||Acts 9|
|37 AD||Peter Preaches to the Gentiles||Acts 10, 11|
|42 AD||Barnabas Sent to Antioch||Acts 11:22|
|42 AD||Peter Led from Prison by the Angel||Acts 12|
|44 AD||Herod Agrippa Dies||Acts 12:20|
|45 AD||James Writes his Letter||James 1 - 5|
|48 AD||Paul's First Missionary Journey||Acts 13|
|48 AD||Paul preaches in Pisidian Antioch||Acts 13:14|
|48 AD||Paul and Barnabas in Iconium||Acts 14|
|48 AD||Paul and Barnabas in Lystra and Derbe||Acts 14:8|
|48 AD||Paul and Barnabas Return to Syrian Antioch||Acts 14:21|
|48 AD||Return to Syrian Antioch||Acts 14:24|
|48 AD||The Council at Jerusalem||Acts 15|
|49 AD||Paul's Second Missionary Journey||Acts 15:36|
|49 AD||Paul in Philippi||Acts 16|
|49 AD||Paul in Thessalonica, Berea, Athens||Acts 17|
|51 AD||Paul in Corinth||Acts 18|
|51 AD||Paul Writes to the Thessalonians||1 Thess. 1 - 5|
|52 AD||Paul Writes again to the Thessalonians||2 Thess. 1 - 3|
|54 AD||Paul in Ephesus||Acts 19|
|54 AD||Paul Writes to the Corinthians||1 Corinthians 1 - 16|
|54 AD||Paul Writes to the Galatians||Galatians 1 - 6|
|57 AD||Paul in Macedonia and Greece||Acts 20|
|57 AD||Paul Writes to the Romans||Romans 1 - 16|
|57 AD||Paul Writes again to the Corinthians||2 Corinthians 1 - 13|
|59 AD||Paul Returns to Jerusalem||Acts 21 - 23|
|60 AD||Paul imprisoned in Caesarea||Acts 24|
|62 AD||Paul Before Festus||Acts 25|
|62 AD||Paul Before Agrippa||Acts 26|
|62 AD||Paul Sails for Rome||Acts 27|
|62 AD||The Shipwreck||Acts 27:13|
|62 AD||Paul Ashore at Malta||Acts 28|
|62 AD||Paul Preaches at Rome||Acts 28:11|
|62 AD||Paul Writes to the Ephesians||Ephesians 1 - 6|
|62 AD||Paul Writes to the Philippians||Philippians 1 - 4|
|62 AD||Paul Writes to the Colossians||Colossians 1 - 4|
|62 AD||Paul Writes to Philemon||Philemon 1|
|63 AD||Paul Writes to Timothy||1 Timothy 1 - 6|
|64 AD||Peter Writes his First Letter||1 Peter 1 - 5|
|66 AD||Paul Writes to Titus||Titus 1 - 3|
|67 AD||Paul Writes Again to Timothy||2 Timothy 1 - 4|
|67 AD||Peter Writes his Second Letter||2 Peter 1 - 3|
|68 AD||Letter to the Hebrews||Hebrews 1 - 13|
|68 AD||Jude Writes his Letter||Jude 1|
|90 AD||John Writes his First Letter||1 John 1 - 5|
|92 AD||John Writes his Second Letter||2 John 1|
|94 AD||John Writes his Third Letter||3 John 1|
|95 AD||John's Revelation on Patmos|
(Source: Bible Hub. Rich Valkanet, Discovery Bible & Biblos)
All Dates are Approximate. Timeline based on traditionally accepted timeframes and general consensus of a variety of sources, including Wilmington's Guide to the Bible, A Survey of Israel's History (Wood), The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (Thiele), ESV Study Bible, The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, and Easton's Bible Dictionary.